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Hawaii Volcano Kilauea (1 Viewer)


rolltide_130

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There goes the theory that Hawaii cannot have explosive eruptions. That was a fairly sizable one right there.

This definitely seems new from a geology perspective, as this may be the first instance of an explosive eruption there that I can think of.
 

Kory

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There goes the theory that Hawaii cannot have explosive eruptions. That was a fairly sizable one right there.

This definitely seems new from a geology perspective, as this may be the first instance of an explosive eruption there that I can think of.
On a geologic time scale, the reliable record of eruptions in Hawaii is minuscule. This was likely a result of a lava plug and not a change in the magma composition (andesitic and rhyolitic magmas tend to be explosive type in addition to volatiles such as water being introduced).
 

WesL

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Guess I used the wrong code embed for those tweets, but the important visual part got through.
I'll clean it up for you. You just have to include the tweet url. You can find that by using the image below. Thanks for posting all that info. That was crazy.

upload_2018-5-17_22-25-25.png
 

bjdeming

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It is helpful. Thanks, Wes! Let's see how this one goes:


As I understand it, that wasn't the expected big blast; HVO said last night that seismicity was ramping up a bit again. So far, no repeat, but lava fissuring and flows began again in the East Rift Zone last night. Kilauea is so big that it can have two eruptions some 25 miles apart!

I don't know where this flow is, but occasionaly you can see little figures in the foreground running around. Those are people, and that's a forest in front of the lava.

That's the scale of the thing. Looks like the fresher, hotter material has reached the surface there. Just in case it's needed, they say, the National Guard has been practicing mass evacuations. Hopefully, it won't get that bad.

 

bjdeming

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They just started a new livstream:


It's a local magazine, but the USGS is tweeting the link, hoping to keep people safe. People just walk up to this stuff! It's astonishing, and dangerous because of very high gas levels. This afternoon, too, there's a lot of explosive activity. At the summit, seismicity dropped for a while after yesterday's explosion, but per the report this morning, it has begun to pick up again, though there's still just the usual steaming coming from the summit crater.

A volcano emergency isn't like severe weather. It just goes on and on....
 

JayF

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KILAUEA VOLCANO (VNUM #332010)
19°25'16" N 155°17'13" W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WARNING
Current Aviation Color Code: RED

Kīlauea Volcano Lower East Rift Zone

Eruption of lava continues in the area of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens.

Fissure 22 continues to erupt lava that is flowing southeast to the coast and the lava ocean entry. Fountains at Fissures 6 and 13 feed lava into a channel that reached the coast yesterday forming a second ocean entry.

Fissures 7 and 21 are feeding a perched lava pond and pāhoehoe flow that has advanced eastward covering most of the area bounded by Leilani Blvd, Mohala St., and the fissure line. Fissure 17 continues weak spattering, while Fissures 19 and 23 are no longer active.

HVO field crews are on site tracking the fountains, lava flows, and spattering from multiple fissures as conditions allow and reporting information to Hawaii County Civil Defense.

Volcanic gas emissions remain very high from the fissure eruptions.

Magma continues to be supplied to the lower East Rift Zone. Earthquake activity continues, but earthquake locations have not moved farther downrift in the past few days and the number of located earthquakes remains low.

Additional ground cracking and outbreaks of lava in the area of the active fissures are possible. Residents downslope of the region of fissures should heed all Hawaii County Civil Defense messages and warnings.

USGS/HVO continues to monitor the lower East Rift Zone activity 24/7 in coordination with Hawaii County Civil Defense.

Kīlauea Volcano Summit

An explosion was detected from the summit Overlook Crater just after 6:00 pm that produced an ash cloud that rose to 10,000 feet above sea level and carried slightly more ash than most recent explosions. The National Weather Service Nexrad radar tracked the cloud for 15-20 minutes. Moderate trade winds were blowing to the southwest and light ash fall likely occurred in downwind locations.

Earthquakes in the summit area continue at a moderate rate, as does deflation of the summit region. The earthquakes and ash explosions are occurring as the summit area subsides and adjusts to the withdrawal of magma from the summit.

Additional explosive events that could produce minor amounts of ashfall downwind are possible at any time. Volcanic gas emissions at the summit remain high.

For forecasts of where ash would fall if such an explosion occur, please consult the Ash3D model output here: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/activity_2018.html

Information on ash hazards and how to prepare for ashfall maybe found here: http://www.ivhhn.org/information#ash
 

JayF

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HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY STATUS REPORT
U.S. Geological Survey
Monday, May 28, 2018, 10:32 AM HST (Monday, May 28, 2018, 20:32 UTC)


KILAUEA VOLCANO (VNUM #332010)
19°25'16" N 155°17'13" W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WARNING
Current Aviation Color Code: RED

Kīlauea Volcano Lower East Rift Zone

Vigorous eruption of lava continues from the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) fissure system in the area of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens.

Overnight, field crews confirmed that the fast-moving flow that broke out at about 7 PM HST Sunday night originated from Fissure 8. The fissure fed a channelized flow that moved north along the margin of the existing flow before turning east and crossing out of Leilani Estates near the intersection of Kahukai and Hookupu streets. As of 8 AM HST Monday morning it had started to cross Pohoiki Road, but the advance rate slowed from hundreds of meters (yards) per hour on Sundaynight to a few meters (yards) per hour this morning.

Fissures 6/13 are inactive, and Fissure 9 is reactivated but erupting small amounts of lava that are pooling nearby. Fissure 7/21 are no longer active and lava flows from that fissure have largely stalled on PGV property.

The most recent map of lava flows can be found here: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/multimedia_maps.html

HVO field crews are on site tracking the fountains, lava flows, and spattering from multiple fissures as conditions allow and reporting information to Hawaii County Civil Defense. Crews are also checking on the status of ground cracks on Highway 130.

Volcanic gas emissions remain very high from the fissure eruptions. If a forecast shift in wind direction occurs today, widespread vog may be expected on the Island of Hawaii.

Magma continues to be supplied to the lower East Rift Zone. Earthquake locations have not moved farther downrift in the past few days and the number of located earthquakes remains low.

Additional ground cracking and outbreaks of lava in the area of the active fissures are possible. Residents downslope of the region of fissures should heed all Hawaii County Civil Defense messages and warnings.

USGS/HVO continues to monitor the lower East Rift Zone activity 24/7 in coordination with Hawaii County Civil Defense.

Kīlauea Volcano Summit

Ash continued to erupt intermittently from the vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at Kīlauea's summit. A brief emission event at about 4:35 AM HST this morning sent ash to about 10,000 feet above sea level but was not associated with a significant tilt offset. A similar event at about 6:30 AM sent ash to approximately 12,000 feet above sea level. Earthquakes are currently occurring at high rates in the summit area. Observations from the ground, by UAS, and by satellite during the past week have documented retreat of the summit vent walls due to collapse of the steep conduit and rim. Trade winds are causing ash fall to the southwest. If a forecast shift in wind direction occurs today, ash fall may occur in communities around the summit area.

Earthquakes in the summit region continue as the summit area subsides and adjusts to the withdrawal of magma.

Additional explosive events that could produce minor amounts of ash fall downwind are possible at any time. Volcanic gas emissions at the summit remain high.

For forecasts of where ash would fall under forecast wind conditons, please consult the Ash3D model output here: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/activity_2018.html

Information on ash hazards and how to prepare for ashfall maybe found here: http://www.ivhhn.org/information#ash

MORE INFORMATION

Activity Summary also available by phone: (808) 967-8862

Subscribe to these messages: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vns2/

Webcam images: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/multimedia_webcams.html

Photos/Video: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/multimedia_chronology.html

Lava Flow Maps: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/multimedia_maps.html

Definitions of terms used in update: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/extra/definitions.pdf

Overview of Kīlauea summit (Halemaʻumaʻu) and East Rift Zone (Puʻu ʻŌʻō ) eruptions:
https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/extra/background.pdf

Summary of volcanic hazards from Kīlauea eruptions:
https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/extra/hazards.pdf

Recent Earthquakes in Hawai'i (map and list):
https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/earthquakes/

Explanation of Volcano Alert Levels and Aviation Color Codes:
https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/activity/alertsystem/index.php
https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2006/3139/

CONTACT INFORMATION:

[email protected]

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.
 

bjdeming

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Per HVO mini-update just now, lava covers " 5.5 square miles (3534 acres). Highest temperature from F[issure ]8 measured today, 2039 F (1115 C)." I saw a reliable report online today somewhere that's as hot as it can get, straight from the mantle.

Destruction: 128 structures gone, so far, including over 70 homes. Because lava may soon cut off all the highways, evacuations have also been called in the Kapoho area, according to local news online, where there are some 500 homes.

Human effects. Gosh. They basically want people out of the whole lower Puna Distrct.

Thought people here might also be interested in the NWS coverage of this disaster. Here, for instance, is the current Honolulu special weather statement:


Special Weather Statement
Special Weather Statement
National Weather Service Honolulu HI
1031 AM HST Thu May 31 2018

HIZ024-025-012045-
South Big Island-Big Island North and East-
1031 AM HST Thu May 31 2018

...PERIODS OF ASHFALL LIKELY FROM KILAUEA VOLCANO...

Web cams and radar data indicate that occasional small bursts of
volcanic ash continue to emanate from Halemaumau Crater. Low level
trade winds will push ash toward the southwest, and any ash
fallout will likely occur over the Kau District and Highway 11
southwest of the town of Volcano. This includes the communities of
Pahala, Wood Valley, Naalehu and Ocean View.

With winds spreading ash in the same direction, repeated
eruptions will lead to a heavier buildup of ash. In addition, any
ash deposited over the last several days will likely be picked up
by local winds, contributing to dusty conditions. Avoid excessive
exposure to ash which is an eye and respiratory irritant. Those
with respiratory sensitivities should take extra precaution to
minimize exposure.

In addition, Pele`s hair and other lightweight volcanic glass
from high fountaining fissures near Leilani Estates are being
transported downwind. Residents are urged to minimize exposure to
these volcanic particles, which can cause skin and eye irritation
similar to volcanic ash.

&&

For more information on the status of Kilauea Volcano, please see
https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/status.html.

For health and safety recommendations, please visit the Hawaii
Interagency Vog Information Dashboard at https://vog.ivhhn.org.

The USGS website for submitting ash reports can be found at
http://hawaiiash.science.

$$
Wroe
Meanwhile, in the world of house cats,

 

JayF

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Just hanging out enjoying some kibble while I view the nice lava flows, then this dang human comes and disturbs me.

Per HVO mini-update just now, lava covers " 5.5 square miles (3534 acres). Highest temperature from F[issure ]8 measured today, 2039 F (1115 C)." I saw a reliable report online today somewhere that's as hot as it can get, straight from the mantle.

Destruction: 128 structures gone, so far, including over 70 homes. Because lava may soon cut off all the highways, evacuations have also been called in the Kapoho area, according to local news online, where there are some 500 homes.

Human effects. Gosh. They basically want people out of the whole lower Puna Distrct.

Thought people here might also be interested in the NWS coverage of this disaster. Here, for instance, is the current Honolulu special weather statement:




Meanwhile, in the world of house cats,

 

JayF

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KILAUEA VOLCANO (VNUM #332010)
19°25'16" N 155°17'13" W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WARNING
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Kīlauea Volcano Lower East Rift Zone

The eruption in the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) continues with no significant change during the past 24 hours.

Fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. The lava flow front at the coast broadened southward and is now nearly 2 miles in width. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern portion of the flow front primarily through the open channel, but also along a 0.6 mi wide area with multiple laze plumes from smaller oozing lobes.

Fissure 22 showed weak spattering and tiny flows around the base of the cone. This morning's overflight crew also observed minor incandescence at Fissure 16/18.

Pele's hair and other lightweight volcanic glass fragments from the lava fountain at Fissure 8 continue to fall downwind of the fissure, dusting the ground within a few hundred meters (yards) of the vent. High winds may waft lighter particles to greater distances. Residents are urged to minimize exposure to these volcanic particles, which can cause skin and eye irritation similar to volcanic ash.

The most recent map of lava flows can be found at https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/multimedia_maps.html

HVO field crews are on site tracking the fountains, lava flows, and spattering from Fissure 8 as conditions allow and are reporting information to Hawaii County Civil Defense. Observations are also collected on a daily basis from cracks in the area of Highway 130; no changes in temperature, crack width, or gas emissions have been noted for several days.

Volcanic gas emissions remain very high from Fissure 8 eruptions. Continuing trade wind conditions are expected to bring VOG to the southern and western parts of the Island of Hawaii. VOG information can be found at https://vog.ivhhn.org/

The ocean entry is a hazardous area. Venturing too close to an ocean entry on land or the ocean exposes you to flying debris from sudden explosive interaction between lava and water. Also, the lava delta is unstable because it is built on unconsolidated lava fragments and sand. This loose material can easily be eroded away by surf, causing the new land to become unsupported and slide into the sea. Additionally, the interaction of lava with the ocean creates "laze", a corrosive seawater plume laden with hydrochloric acid and fine volcanic particles that can irritate the skin, eyes, and lungs.

Magma continues to be supplied to the Lower East Rift Zone. Seismicity remains relatively low in the area with numerous small magnitude earthquakes and low amplitude background tremor. Higher amplitude tremor is occasionally being recorded on seismic stations close to the ocean entry.

Additional ground cracking and outbreaks of lava in the area of the active fissures are possible. Residents downslope of the region of fissures should heed all Hawaii County Civil Defense messages and warnings.

Kīlauea Volcano Summit

At 5:03 p.m. HST on June 25, after approximately 21 hours of elevated seismicity, a collapse explosion occurred at the summit producing an ash-poor steam plume that went undetected by the weather radar. Visual observations suggested the plume rose about 700 ft above the caldera before drifting downwind to the southwest. The energy released by the event was equivalent to a magnitude 5.3 earthquake. Seismicity dropped abruptly from a high of 25-35 earthquakes per hour (many in the magnitude in the 3 range) prior to the collapse explosion down to less than 10 per hour afterwards. Within 3 hours seismicity began to creep up again averaging about 40 earthquakes per hour at the time of this posting. Inward slumping of the rim and walls of Halemaʻumaʻu continues in response to ongoing subsidence at the summit.

Sulfur dioxide emissions from the volcano's summit have dropped to levels that are about half those measured prior to the onset of the current episode of eruptive activity. This gas and minor amounts of ash are being transported downwind, with small bursts of ash and gas accompanying intermittent explosive activity.
 

bjdeming

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Just captured this rainbow image on one of the Kilauea summit cams from HVO. Seems worth sharing, as the updates have indicated little change and a collapsing lava surface in Fissure 8, where the spectacular fountains were. I so hope that they officially call it over soon, and that the residents of Lower Puna can get fully into recovery.

Screenshot_2018-09-17-18-39-19.png
 

JayF

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USGS VNS <[email protected]> Unsubscribe
Mar 26, 2019, 8:38 PM (3 days ago)

to me





HVO/USGS Volcanic Activity Notice

Volcano: Kilauea (VNUM #332010)

Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Previous Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY

Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN
Previous Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

Issued: Tuesday, March 26, 2019, 3:07 PM HST
Source: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
Notice Number: 2019/H19
Location: N 19 deg 25 min W 155 deg 17 min
Elevation: 4091 ft (1247 m)
Area: Hawaii

Volcanic Activity Summary: Kīlauea Volcano is quiet. Monitoring data over the past eight months have shown relatively low rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas emission at the summit and East Rift Zone (ERZ) including the area of the 2018 eruption.

Accordingly, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is lowering the Volcano Alert Level for ground-based hazards from ADVISORY to NORMAL. This means the volcano is at a non-eruptive, background state. The Aviation Color Code is also being lowered from YELLOW to GREEN.

For definitions of USGS Volcano Alert Levels and Aviation Color Codes, see: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vhp/about_alerts.html

Despite this change, some hazardous conditions remain and are described below. Kīlauea remains an active volcano, and it will erupt again. Although we expect clear signs prior to a return to eruption, the time frame of warning may be short. Island of Hawaiʻi residents should be familiar with the long-term hazard map for Kīlauea Volcano and how to stay informed about Kīlauea activity.

Lava flow hazard map for the Island of Hawaiʻi: https://pubs.usgs.gov/mf/1992/2193/


Recent Observations:
[Volcanic cloud height] only minor fume from active areas
[Other volcanic cloud information] none at this time
[Lava flow/dome] no active lava at this time
[Lava flow] no active lava at this time

Hazard Analysis:
[General hazards] Continuing hazards in areas of recent activity.
[Ash cloud] not a concern at this time
[Ashfall] not a concern at this time
[Lava flow/dome] no active lava at this time
[Mud flow] NA
[Other hazards] low levels of degassing, hot, steaming ground cracks, rugged unstable new lava surfaces
[Volcanic gas] SO2 emission rate less than 100 tonnes per day for the entire volcano
[Lava flow] no active lava at this time

Remarks: Current state of the volcano

Kīlauea Volcano has maintained a low level of non-eruptive unrest since the end of the lower East Rift Zone eruption and summit collapse in early September 2018. The past nearly 8 months without active lava at the surface of the volcano marks the longest time interval without eruption since the 17-month period between November 1979 and April 1982.

The total combined sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate from the summit, Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and lower East Rift Zone fissure vents is currently less than 100 tonnes per day, well below pre-2018 levels.

Seismicity remains relatively low and steady across the volcano. Although weekly earthquake counts are elevated above pre-2018 eruption levels, they do not reflect shallowing of magma that typically occurs prior to eruption outbreaks. Most of these earthquakes are aftershocks of the May 4, 2018, magnitude-6.9 Kalapana earthquake, and they will continue at declining rates. Earthquakes such as the March 13, 2019, magnitude-5.5 south flank event reflect ongoing south flank instability and are not a sign of renewed eruption potential.

Ground deformation continues, but at rates below those during the period of major eruptive activity in 2018. Deformation rates on the East Rift Zone and at Kīlauea’s summit are still higher than they were prior to April 2018, but have been slowly decreasing. The middle East Rift Zone between Puʻu ʻŌʻō and Highway 130 continues to show ground motion that likely reflects slow refilling of the deep rift zone. Deformation rates may remain high, as magma entering Kīlauea’s system is stored, rather than erupted. Motion on Kīlauea’s south flank is higher than before May’s magnitude-6.9 earthquake. This motion is consistent with increased sliding on Kīlauea’s décollement fault in a process called “afterslip,” which is expected following a large earthquake.

What is next at Kīlauea Volcano?

Since the early 1800s, when written records of Hawaiian volcanoes began, Kīlauea has had infrequent periods during which no lava erupted. The longest known eruptive pause was in 1935-1952, ending with eruption in the caldera.

Neither this 17-year pause, nor any other shorter pause, followed partial collapse of the caldera such as the collapse that occurred in the summer of 2018.

After partial caldera collapses in 1840 and 1868, lava returned to the caldera within days to a few weeks. The length of the current pause already exceeds those earlier post-collapse pauses.

Following partial caldera collapses, the first eruption outside the caldera took place on the East Rift Zone 17 years after the 1823 collapse, on the Southwest Rift Zone 28 years after the 1840 collapse, and on the Southwest Rift Zone 52 years after the 1868 collapse.

On the basis of these observations, we think it most likely that the next eruption of Kīlauea will take place in the caldera within a few years, and that the next eruption on one of the volcano’s rift zones will be in a decade or longer. This prognosis assumes a return to Kīlauea’s general style of behavior for the past 200 years.

There remains the possibility that Kīlauea’s behavior may return to the dominantly explosive 300 years preceding the early 1800s. Monitoring and ongoing analysis by HVO may be able to determine in advance which style of behavior will eventually prevail, but it is currently too early to tell.

Importantly, current monitoring data do not suggest a return to eruptive activity or summit collapse in the coming months. However, Kīlauea is one of the most active volcanoes in the world, and additional eruptions will occur. Residents should remain informed of the volcano's status, learn about long-term hazards, and understand how alerts and warnings of volcanic activity are distributed.

To receive updates on Kīlauea or other Hawaiian volcanoes, sign up here:
https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vns2/

For more information please see the HVO web site: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/geo_hist_summary.html

Continuing Hazards

Despite diminished activity on Kīlauea, hazardous conditions remain in the East Rift Zone and at the summit of the volcano.

The lower East Rift Zone and Puʻu ʻŌʻō lava flow fields include large areas of still-warm, rugged, extremely sharp, and unstable lava surfaces that are subject to collapse. During heavy rain, white-out conditions (from steam produced by rainwater interacting with hot rock) could develop on the lava flows leading to dangerous conditions. Recent collapses of the new shoreline are not known to have occurred, but could happen should the new lava sea cliffs become unstable.

SO2 gas emissions have greatly decreased from lower East Rift Zone vents to a level below instrumental detection on area roadways. However, locally higher concentrations of SO2 or H2S (hydrogen sulfide) may persist and residents in downwind areas may, from time to time, notice odors of these gases.

Steaming ground cracks are especially common just west of Highway 130. HVO continues to monitor these cracks periodically for changes and will do so for the foreseeable future. Some of what emanates from these thermal areas is related to decomposition of vegetation and is not degassing magma. Emissions from these cracks are likely to continue for years and may change with atmospheric conditions and wind.

Around fissure 8, thick accumulations of tephra (fragmental volcanic debris) hide underground hazards such as holes, ground cracks, and collapsed houses and water tanks. Winds can pick up glassy and lightweight fragments, including Pele's hair, and carry them downwind. Tephra can irritate eyes, skin, and respiratory systems, so prolonged exposure should be avoided.

At the Kīlauea summit, steep crater walls destabilized by 2018 collapse events and earthquakes may be prone to sudden slumping or rockfalls for years to come, even without further ground shaking. Local concentrations of SO2 or H2S (hydrogen sulfide) remain low but people in downwind areas may from time to time notice odors of these gases. As the water table beneath the caldera adjusts to post-collapse conditions and possibly returns to the area of subsidence, it is possible, but not certain, that hydrothermal explosions could occur.

Kīlauea Volcano, as well as the entire Island of Hawaiʻi, remains an area of ongoing earthquake hazard. Additional aftershocks from the May 4, 2018, magnitude-6.9 earthquake and the March 13, 2019, magnitude-5.5 earthquake are expected, and some could be damaging.

HVO continues to closely monitor incoming geologic, seismic, deformation, and gas data for evidence of significant magma shallowing or pressurization that could mean Kīlauea Volcano’s magmatic system is building toward renewed activity.

From Hawaii County Civil Defense: Hawaii County Civil Defense advises that lava flows and features created by the 2018 eruption are primarily on private property and persons are asked to be respectful and not enter or park on private property.


Contacts: [email protected]

Next Notice: The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) continues to closely monitor Kīlauea's seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions for any sign of reactivation. HVO will continue to issue weekly Kīlauea updates on Tuesdays until further notice.

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawaiʻi.
 

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